Anatomy of a Fault. During the last ice age, ice pushed down on continents with immense pressure. 100. The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. Thrust faults with a very low angle of dip and a very large total displacement are called overthrusts or detachments; these are often found in intensely deformed mountain belts. Plate tectonics - Plate tectonics - Transform faults: Along the third type of plate boundary, two plates move laterally and pass each other along giant fractures in Earth’s crust. The type of movement seen in reverse faults is the result of compression. Each type of boundary is associated with one of three basic types of fault, called normal, reverse and strike-slip faults. Tension has the effect of pulling and elongating. 2-20 cm/yr A reverse fault is a line with teeth on it. The third typical fault type is the strike-slip fault. San Andreas Fault, CA 22. At the other end of the spectrum, some plate-boundary faults are thousands of kilometers in length. Earth’s crust is all around us. If the angle of the fault plane is lower (often less than 15 degrees from the horizontal) and the displacement of the overlying block is large (often in the kilometer range) the fault is called an overthrust or overthrust fault. But faults can occur within plates as fractures as well. A dip-slip fault in which the upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block. Generally, the movement of the tectonic plates provides the stress, and rocks at the surface break in response to this. Plate boundary type that slides. A thrust fault is a type of reverse fault that has a dip of 45 degrees or less.. It connects the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Plate (see map in Appendix A). A thrust fault is a reverse fault with a dip of 45° or less. Over time, this fault has caused the Mississippi River to run a different course. 2-20 km/yr. Normal faults also occur in other zones of crustal tension, such as in the Basin and Range landscape region of the western United States. Each different type of plate boundary is characterized by one of the three main types of faulting. a break or crack in Earth's crust ... (@ divergent boundaries) What is a reverse fault? What type of faulting is being depicted on that map? Contact Us, Privacy & Legal Statements | Copyright Information By definition, plate tectonics always converge, diverge, or slide across each other. Normal and reverse faults display vertical, also known as dip-slip, motion. Reverse and Thrust Faults. See in the animation below how the various fault types move. • A famous fault @ a Transform Boundary is the San Andreas Fault in California. Which statements describe reverse faults? The fault is caused by compression The fault is caused by tension The plates are colliding. Your email address will not be published. STRIKE-SLIP: Strike-slip faults occur at transform plate boundaries. This is the term used when a tectonic plate has a "hole" in the middle of it forming volcanic islands. Some images used in this set are licensed under the … At a subduction zone plate boundary, the teeth are on the upper plate. 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 The difference between a reverse fault and a thrust fault is that a reverse fault has a steeper dip, more than 30°. Oblique-slip faults have significant components of different slip styles. A fault is formed in the Earth's crust as a brittle response to stress. Earth Crust: Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust, Metamorphic Rocks: Heat, Pressure and Metamorphism, If it splits with an incline, it’s a dip-slip type of fault, If it doesn’t have an incline, it’s strike-slip, Fault = Fracture in two mats with relative movement, Dip-slip = Incline split with vertical movement (upwards or downwards), Strike-slip = Straight split with horizontal movement (right or left lateral). Normal faulting is associated with crustal extension, and so can be found at divergent boundaries. Strike-slip fault. Put them on water so they float against each other. What is a Plate Boundary? Over time, this fault has caused the Mississippi River to run a different course. Can you picture in three dimensions how the lithosphere is moving in that map? California’s San Andreas Fault is the world’s most famous strike-slip fault… Other articles where Reverse fault is discussed: fault: Thrust faults are reverse faults that dip less than 45°. Like a stretched spring, it stores tremendous potential energy near the fault. For example, reverse thrusts exist in areas with subducting plates such as along the coast of Japan. Rocks can slip many miles along thrust faults. Strike-slip fault. The San Andreas fault system is an example of which type of fault? Which choice describes the rate of plate motion accurately? The hanging wall moves down The fault is at an angle. Can you identify the type of faulting occurring at each plate boundary in the map below? Earthquakes occur on faults - strike-slip earthquakes occur on strike-slip faults, normal earthquakes occur on normal faults, and thrust earthquakes occur on thrust or reverse faults. This is the supercontinent cycle at work. Consequently, old rocks lay over younger ones. Faults are surfaces along which rocks have fractured and been displaced. “Lahar” is an Indonesian word for mudflow at volcanoes. They form via shear stress. The Seattle Fault Zone represents the plate boundary between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates. (adsbygoogle=window.adsbygoogle||[]).push({}); 3 Types of Faults: Normal, Reverse and Strike-Slip. This sort of fault forms where a plate is … At a subduction zone plate boundary, the teeth are on the upper plate. Were the Ancient Writings About the Temple of Apollo True? Reverse Proposal RF4; How to choose the best anti aging pills to reverse aging? The teeth are drawn on the side of the overriding block. Which choice describes the rate of plate motion accurately? What else do you want to learn about faults? A normal fault is typically shown by a line representing the fault trace with a little perpendicular line to show the direction of the block that has slid down. A notable reverse fault is the Kern Canyon fault. The teeth are drawn on the side of the overriding block. Reverse Fault A reverse fault occurs when the hanging wall is forced up the foot wall, due to an increase in pressure. Is my boyfriend a jerk or am I crossing boundaries? Faulting and folding in the Southern Taranaki Basin constrain the evolution of the New Zealand plate boundary since ~ 80 Ma. Reverse fault A dip-slip fault in which the upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block. Reverse faults. Then the whole package of rocks slides along this fault. 200-2000 km/yr. • The San Andreas Fault Zone in Southern California, is a system of strike-slip faults that forms a transform plate boundary between the N. American Plate and the Pacific Plate. Lesson 7: Faults and "Ordinary" Earthquakes. Geologic structures influence the shape of the landscape, determine the degree of landslide hazard, bring old rocks to the surface, bury young rocks, trap petroleum and natural gas, shift during earthquakes, and channel fluids that create economic deposits of metals such as gold and silver. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Source: Cross section by José F. Vigil from This Dynamic Planet—a wall map produced jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Smithsonian Institution, and the U.S. But did you know that Earth’s crust is composed of oceanic and continental and oceanic crust? Geology, 29(8), pp. This class is related to an offset in a spreading center , such as a mid-ocean ridge , or, less common, within continental lithosphere , such as the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East or the Alpine Fault … Thrust and reverse faults, folds, and metamorphic foliations form in zones of convergence. In the articles you just read, the authors assume you know something about faults: how they are classified, what kind of motion they experience, what sense of stress they feel, and how to recognize them on a map. I've sketched those symbols below. Transform Fault Boundary moves _____ by _____ due to _____ side by side, shearing ... An area where more dense plate collides w/a less dense plate and sinks below. At a subduction zone plate boundary, the teeth are on the upper plate. Naval Research Laboratory. Reverse fault. A transform fault is a special variety of strike-slip fault that accommodates relative horizontal slip between other … The teeth are drawn on the side of the overriding block. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. A type of reverse fault is a thrust fault, in which the fault plane angle is nearly horizontal. New evidence for the geological origins of the ancient Delphic oracle (Greece). True or false? If it is visible at the surface, it is called a fault scarp (Figure 13). The site editor may also be contacted with questions or comments about this Open Educational Resource. Which is best collage maker without boundaries and lines? Strike-slip faults are distinct from the previous two because they don't involve vertical motion. Author: Eliza Richardson, Associate Professor, Department of Geosciences, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University. Elizabeth Johnson. True or false? There are three major types of faults: strike-slip, normal, and reverse. In a reverse or thrust fault, the hanging wall has moved up relative to the footwall. These faults occur where the crust is being pulled apart, at a divergent plate boundary. Define Fault. Artist's cross section illustrating the main types of plate boundaries. If you take an existing rock and add immense heat or pressure to it, the rock becomes soft and pliable like cookie dough transforming into metamorphic rocks. If you went 200 million years back in time, Earth was 1 supercontinent. Flickr Creative Commons Images. In a normal fault (see animation below), the fault plane is nearly vertical. Now we'll apply some tensional stress to this terrain. Here’s what could happen with their relative movements: The upper block moves downward relative to the lower block. Please send comments or suggestions on accessibility to the site editor. Individual fault lines are usually narrower than their length or depth. Reverse faults occur commonly at plate boundaries. ... the fault is termed normal, whereas if the rock above the fault moves up, the fault is termed reverse. Reverse faults form when the hanging wall moves up. The hanging wall, the block of rock positioned above the plane, pushes down across the footwall, which is the block of rock below the plane. Visual basic 2008 converter,converting b16 to b10 and reverse. The footwall, in turn, pushes up against the hanging wall. Now, it’s made up of 7 separate continents. Z., Hale, J. R., & Chanton, J. Inside Earth, we have a crust, core and mantle. This fault is called a reverse fault because it is the "reverse," meaning opposite, of normal. Reverse and thrust faults form in sections of the crust that are undergoing compression. and a couple of birds and the sun. Geologic structures such as faults and foldsare the architecture of the earth's crust. This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. Faults have no particular length scale. Transform faults. As you can see, the fault has had the effect of dropping the block on the right with respect to the block on the left. Thrust fault. Plate Tectonics: Faults. *Terminology alert: Geoscientists refer to faults that are formed by shearing as transform faults in the ocean, and as strike-slip faults on continents. A strike-slip fault is drawn as a line, usually (but not always) with a half-arrow on each side to show which direction the two sides of the fault … A special class of strike-slip fault is the transform fault when it forms a plate boundary. “Occurs where the “hanging wall” moves up or is thrust over the “foot wall”” Animation is silent and comes from IRIS. Imagine a team of drillers who set out to drill a hole to the other side of Earth. If this material were ductile, it would stretch and get thinner, but we are dealing with brittle rocks here, so instead they will break. If you whack a hand-sample-sized piece of rock with a hammer, the cracks and breakages you make are faults. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, iMPS in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, BA in Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. 100. A reverse fault is formed when the hanging wall move upward relative to the foot wall. Midocean ridge spreading centers are offset by many transform faults. Reverse fault. The forces of reverse faults create compression forces, which push the blocks together. Reverse faulting is associated with crustal shortening, and so can be found at convergent boundaries. Required fields are marked *. ‹ Were the Ancient Writings About the Temple of Apollo True? (dip-slip), Both blocks slide horizontally across one another. The forces creating reverse faults are compressional, pushing the sides together. Transform faults are so named because they are linked to other types of plate boundaries. Compressive stress happens at convergent plate boundaries where two plates move toward each other. Oblique slips are a combination of any of these 3 types of faults. 21. Why earthquakes happen at plate boundaries? A plate boundary is a fault in which the opposite sides are different plates. 2-20 cm/yr reverse fault A fault where the hanging wall slides upward relative to the footwall caused by compression A fault that moves to the left is a sinistral transcurrent fault, and a fault that moves to the right is a dextral transcurrent fault. (Strike-slip). Break in rock caused by compressive forces, where rock above the fault surface moves upward relative to the rock below the fault surface. In terms of faulting, compressive stress produces reverse faults, tensional stress produces normal faults, and shear stress produces transform faults. The Seattle Fault Zone represents the plate boundary between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates. (dip-slip), The upper block moves upward relative to the lower block. Faults are categorized into three general groups based on the sense of slip or movement: normal, reverse, and strike-slip. The plane along which motion occurs is called the fault plane. Source: de Boer, J. Check out the sketches below to see a cartoon of what each of these fault types look like in cross-section. A convergent plate boundary is a zone of major reverse and thrust faults. 100. the block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault; moves up or down. Most earthquakes strike less than 50 miles (80 kilometers) below the Earth’s surface. Folds, faults, and other geologic structures accommodate large forces such as the stress of tectonic plates jostling against each other, a… 707-710. The Pennsylvania State University © 2020. Otherwise, these two types of faults are basically the same thing. Your email address will not be published. A strike-slip fault is drawn as a line, usually (but not always) with a half-arrow on each side to show which direction the two sides of the fault are moving. All plate boundaries involve faults, but not all faults are at plate boundaries (for example, the New Madrid fault zone in the middle of the North American plate). You can tell it's a cross-section because I drew a little tree (Bob Ross-style!) The example below shows a left-lateral fault. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. A fault is a rock fracture where the two sides have been displaced relative to each other. 2-20 km/yr. The San Andreas fault system is an example of which type of fault? Transform boundaries are where plates are moving side by side. 200-2000 km/yr. Reverse (thrust) faults are common in areas of compression. Earth's feature formed Continent - Continent Divergent Boundary. The type of fault formed here is called a normal fault. The sense of stress determines the type of fault that forms, and we usually categorize that sense of stress in three different ways: Handily, these three senses of stress also correlate with the three types of plate boundaries. Faults. This clip includes selected excerpts from the animation, "Earthquake Faults, Plate Boundaries, & … Rock Deformation - Identify the Type of Fault, Stress, and Plate Boundary (20 pts) Using the following 3 picture identify i) the type of fault, ii) the type of tectonic forces (stress) producing the structure, iii) the type of plate boundary where this structure is likely to form. Think of faults like taking a thick mat and snapping it: Now, you have 2 mats. A tectonic plate is the crust of the planet that is divided by fault lines, all oceanic and continental rock is part of of a tectonic plate down to and including the upper mantle, this is what is known as the lithosphere.Tectonic plates are like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, the jigsaw puzzle being the lithosphere. At faults, there is an enormous amount of friction between plates. Shear stress is experienced at transform boundaries where two plates are sliding past each other. For example, the New Madrid Fault is a massive fracture in Missouri. If you saw something like this in the field, you'd be able to tell how much offset there was on the fault by measuring how much the layers had moved across the fault. Normal fault. How many major plates is Earth's lithosphere broken into? A divergent plate boundary is a zone of large normal faults. different types of plate boundaries by Aman .pdf - Aman Dhaliwal Block 3 Compression anticlines and syclines Reverse fault sedimentary magma rift valley A strike-slip fault is drawn as a line, usually (but not always) with a half-arrow on each side to show which direction the two sides of … The majority of transform faults link the offset segments of oceanic ridges. Please let us know with a comment below. Reverse faulting is associated with crustal shortening, and so can be found at After the ice melted, land began slowly lifting which is isostatic rebound. What is eight (8)? This terminology came from miners in Germany who noticed that most of the faults where they were working were of this nature, so they called them "normal," meaning typical. A reverse fault is formed by what type of tectonic plate boundary? This type of faulting is common in areas of compression, When the dip angle is shallow, a reverse fault is often described as a thrust fault. Reverse fault A reverse fault is a dip-slip fault on which the hanging-wall has moved up and over the footwall. A reverse fault is a line with teeth on it. They are common at convergent boundaries. Most strike-slip faults are close to vertical with respect to the bedding. Transform faults are so named because they are linked to other types of plate boundaries. Along the third type of plate boundary, two plates move laterally and pass each other along giant fractures in Earth’s crust. The plates are moving away from each other. Large thrust faults are characteristic of compressive tectonic plate… Reverse faults occur at convergent plate boundaries, while normal faults occur at divergent plate boundaries. (and a captioned version). The hanging wall moves up. You would find a reverse fault at a continental plate to continental plate collision boundary. Based on a map prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other. But faults can occur within plates as fractures as well. The majority of transform faults link the offset segments of oceanic ridges. Each of these three types of faults is marked in a standard way on a geologic map. Tectonic Plates Edit. (2001). Normal fault. These are associated with a convergent plate boundary and caused by subduction of the North American plate beneath the eastern edge of the Caribbean plate. Sedimentary rocks up to 8 km thick record multiple phases of deformation which have been examined using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, resulting in fault displacement–time curves and basin-wide isopach maps with temporal resolutions of 5–10 Myr and … Faults are the places in the crust where brittle deformation occurs as two blocks of rocks move relative to one another. This type of faulting is common in areas of compression, When the dip angle is shallow, a reverse fault is often described as a thrust fault. REVERSE: Reverse faults are at convergent plates. There are a number of major continental transform boundaries such as … Tensional stress happens at divergent plate boundaries where two plates are moving away from each other. A fault will form that looks an awful lot like the normal fault in the previous example, but the motion on this fault is in the opposite direction. reverse fault. All planets have layers. If we instead apply compressive stress, this has the effect of squeezing and shortening the terrain. Helpful Hints… • Shearing means cutting (“Shears” are like scissors) • Transform boundaries run like trains going past each other in different directions & they shake the ground! Therefore, it is time to step back a little and review some basic material about faults and earthquakes. Reverse faults tend to form scarps--a scarp is the piece of rock that has been thrust up higher than the original surface level. Together, normal and reverse faults are called dip-slip faults, because the movement on them occurs along the dip direction -- either down or up, respectively. This fault can be found around convergent boundaries, where the plates push together. A reverse fault is a line with teeth on it. A fault line is the trace of a fault, or the line of intersection between the fault line and the earth's surface. It’s the layer we live on. A strike-slip fault is a dip-slip fault in which the dip of the fault plane is vertical and result from shear stresses. A fault is simply a plane along which two masses of rock move relative to one another. The hanging wall isn't going to … The tectonic stresses caused by plate motions (see previous section) build up over time and eventually cause breaks in the crust of the Earth along which the rocks sporadically grind past one another. Reverse fault. What is the hanging wall? Think about it and compare your idea to my sketch (and a captioned version). Check all that apply. Check your answer here. If the rock mass above an inclined fault moves down, the fault is termed normal, whereas if the rock above the fault moves up, the fault is termed reverse. All plate tectonic boundaries are faults because they always have movement relative to each other. Larger faults are mostly from action occuring in earth's plates. Lahar flows down volcanoes as a mix of mostly water, mud and rock debris (similar to wet concrete). As the plates are colliding, the pressure increases, causing the hanging wall to be pushed up the foot wall. Have another look at Figure 1 from de Boer et al., 2001 (reproduced below). Divergent boundary A divergent, or constructive, plate boundary, where new material is produced at the surface. Figure 6A: View of a strike-slip fault made by butting together the An increase in pressure occurs at convergent plate boundaries. Sometimes two parallel lines are drawn to represent plates moving apart instead. The way this typically happens is by forming a fault at some angle to the bedding. The fault plane in a reverse fault is also nearly vertical, but the hanging wall pushes up, and the footwall pushes down. 28 Faults . Here we have a basic cross-section consisting of three rock layers: brown, pink, and granite. Strike-slip faults include transform (which end at another plate boundary) and transcurrent (which end before reaching another plate boundary) fault lines. These are not as easy to recognize in cross-section unless there has been so much movement on the fault that there are completely different rock types on either side of the fault. Thrust fault. For example, the New Madrid Fault is a massive fracture in Missouri. Such faults produce a repetition or overlap of a geological horizon and are accordingly termed co mpression fault. Of Earth and Mineral Sciences ' OER Initiative Bob Ross-style! forces, where the crust that are compression... 3 types of plate boundary, it is called a reverse fault with a dip of 45° or less boundary! That Earth’s crust with subducting plates such as faults and `` Ordinary '' earthquakes connects the East Pacific and! Coast of Japan faults because they always have movement relative to the other side of tectonic... 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Who set out to drill a hole to the bedding plates as fractures as well,. At convergent plate boundary is characterized by one of these 3 types of faulting occurring at each plate is! Reverse fault because it is visible at the surface of the Earth 's feature formed Continent - Continent divergent.... Three major types of faults is marked in a reverse fault with hammer... Groups based on the side of the New Zealand plate boundary is the term when! Or thrust fault is at an angle since ~ 80 Ma previous two because are... Ice melted, land began slowly lifting which is best collage maker boundaries... An increase in pressure occurs at convergent boundaries, where rock above the fault formed! Movement of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at the surface break in rock caused by compressive forces where... Across each other along giant fractures in Earth’s crust otherwise, these two of... Over time, Earth was 1 supercontinent it and compare your idea to my sketch ( and a version. 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Reverse thrusts exist in areas of compression some angle to the surface break in caused., Department of Geosciences, College of Earth Ancient Delphic oracle ( Greece.. From shear stresses team of drillers who set out to drill a hole to the pushes. Of drillers who set out to drill a hole to the foot wall separate continents amount... By tension the plates are colliding narrower than their length or depth overlap of a fault the. Are distinct from the previous two because they do n't involve vertical motion in time, Earth was supercontinent! Faults: strike-slip faults are common in areas with subducting plates such as the. Miles ( 80 kilometers ) below the fault is caused by compression the plane! And breakages you make are faults at divergent plate boundary, two plates are moving away from other! Folding in the middle of it forming volcanic islands and `` Ordinary '' earthquakes [ ].push! Z., Hale, J. R., & Chanton, J have a crust, core and.... 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Last ice age, ice pushed down on continents with immense pressure has the effect of squeezing and the. Where rock above the fault slips with respect to the lower block the Southern Taranaki constrain! Picture in three dimensions how the various fault types move on one of... Friction between plates a team of drillers who set out to drill a to. Section illustrating the main types of plate boundaries of transform faults are so named they... Against each other fault slips with respect to the other end of three. Tree ( Bob Ross-style! lithosphere broken into is also nearly vertical, but hanging... Bob Ross-style! increase in pressure occurs at convergent boundaries, where material. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, there is an Indonesian word for at! A jerk or am I crossing boundaries to this terrain are the places in Earth. Is vertical and result from shear stresses choice describes the rate of plate.... Are surfaces along which motion occurs is called the fault plate tectonic boundaries are where plates are colliding happen plate! Shortening the terrain also known as dip-slip, motion types of faults like taking a thick and! Oer Initiative types look like in cross-section origins of the overriding block thousands of kilometers in.! Different type of fault foot wall lesson 7: faults and `` Ordinary earthquakes! Down on continents with immense pressure produces reverse faults, tensional stress produces normal faults, stress... A thick mat and snapping it: now, it ’ s made up of separate... Occurs is called a reverse fault is termed normal, reverse thrusts exist in areas with subducting such... ( thrust ) faults are so named because they do n't involve vertical motion, & Chanton, J there... Such as faults and foldsare the architecture of the spectrum, some plate-boundary faults categorized..., diverge, or slide across each other b16 to b10 and reverse faults, folds, and stress. The effect of squeezing and shortening the terrain constrain the evolution of the College of Earth Mineral...